et al., Rheumatology International , doi:10.1007/s00296-021-04857-9 (Peer Reviewed)
Retrospective 47 rheumatic disease patients not finding significant differences with HCQ.
Alzahrani et al., 4/15/2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, Middle East, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
risk of death, 58.8% lower, RR 0.41, p = 1.00, treatment 0 of 14 (0.0%), control 1 of 33 (3.0%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 81.0% lower, RR 0.19, p = 0.54, treatment 0 of 14 (0.0%), control 3 of 33 (9.1%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of COVID-19 severe case, 32.7% lower, RR 0.67, p = 0.70, treatment 2 of 14 (14.3%), control 7 of 33 (21.2%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.