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HCQ study #157 of 255
10/12 Late treatment study
Annie et al., Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1002/phar.2467 (Peer Reviewed)
Hydroxychloroquine in hospitalized COVID‐19 patients: Real world experience assessing mortality
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Retrospective database analysis with PSM not including COVID-19 severity, finding mortality OR 0.95 [0.62-1.46] for HCQ, and 1.24 [0.70-2.22] for HCQ+AZ. Confounding by indication likely.

Annie et al., 10/12/2020, retrospective, database analysis, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
risk of death, 4.3% lower, RR 0.96, p = 0.83, treatment 48 of 367 (13.1%), control 50 of 367 (13.6%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of death, 20.5% higher, RR 1.21, p = 0.46, treatment 29 of 199 (14.6%), control 24 of 199 (12.1%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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