Retrospective database analysis with PSM not including COVID-19 severity, finding mortality OR 0.95 [0.62-1.46] for HCQ, and 1.24 [0.70-2.22] for HCQ+AZ. Confounding by indication likely.
Annie et al., 10/12/2020, retrospective, database analysis, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
risk of death, 4.3% lower, RR 0.96, p = 0.83, treatment 48 of 367 (13.1%), control 50 of 367 (13.6%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of death, 20.5% higher, RR 1.21, p = 0.46, treatment 29 of 199 (14.6%), control 24 of 199 (12.1%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: confounding by indication is likely and adjustments do not consider COVID-19 severity.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.