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0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Mortality -19% Improvement Relative Risk Mechanical ventilation -461% ICU admission -463% c19hcq.com/awad.html Favors HCQ Favors control
18 February 2021 - Late treatment study
Impact of hydroxychloroquine on disease progression and ICU admissions in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection
Awad et al., American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, doi:10.1093/ajhp/zxab056 (Peer Reviewed)
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This paper has inconsistent values - the number of treatment and control patients differs in the text and Table 1, we have used treatment 188 and control 148. Retrospective 336 hospitalized patients in the USA showing higher mortality, ICU admission, and intubation with treatment. Confounding by indication is likely. Time varying confounding is also likely due to declining usage over the early period when overall treatment protocols were also improving dramatically. Authors and reviewers appear to be unfamiliar with either of these.
risk of death, 19.1% higher, RR 1.19, p = 0.60, treatment 56 of 188 (29.8%), control 37 of 148 (25.0%).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 460.7% higher, RR 5.61, p < 0.001, treatment 64 of 188 (34.0%), control 9 of 148 (6.1%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of ICU admission, 463.4% higher, RR 5.63, p < 0.001, treatment 67 of 188 (35.6%), control 9 of 148 (6.1%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial time varying confounding likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically, substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Awad et al., 2/18/2021, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
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