et al., Internal and Emergency Medicine, doi:0.1007/s11739-020-02505-x (Peer Reviewed)
2075 hospital patients in Spain showing HCQ reduces mortality 52%, odds ratio OR 0.39, p
<0.001, after adjustment for age, gender, temperature > 37 °C, and saturation of oxygen < 90% treatment with azithromycin, steroids, heparin, tocilizumab, a combination of lopinavir with ritonavir, and oseltamivir, and date of admission (model 4).
Ayerbe et al., 9/30/2020, retrospective, database analysis, Spain, Europe, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
risk of death, 52.2% lower, RR 0.48, p < 0.001, treatment 237 of 1857 (12.8%), control 49 of 162 (30.2%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.