Retrospective 976 hospitalized patients with 834 treated with HCQ+AZ showing HCQ mortality relative risk RR 0.35, p
< 0.0001. Note that in this case HCQ was recommended for mild/moderate cases, so more severe cases may not have received HCQ (which may also be why they became severe cases). We note that this is opposite to a common bias in HCQ studies - in many cases HCQ was more likely to be given to more severe cases.
Budhiraja et al., 11/18/2020, retrospective, India, South Asia, preprint, 12 authors.
risk of death, 65.4% lower, RR 0.35, p < 0.001, treatment 69 of 834 (8.3%), control 34 of 142 (23.9%).
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: excessive unadjusted differences between groups.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.