• HCQ is effective for COVID-19. The probability that an ineffective treatment generated results as positive as the 210 studies to date is estimated to be 1 in 74 quadrillion (p
• Early treatment is most successful, with 100% of studies reporting a positive effect and an estimated reduction of 66% in the effect measured (death, hospitalization, etc.) using a random effects meta-analysis, RR 0.34 [0.27-0.44].
• 91% of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) for early, PrEP, or PEP treatment report positive effects, the probability of this happening for an ineffective treatment is 0.0059.
• There is evidence of bias towards publishing negative results. 89% of prospective studies report positive effects, and only 76% of retrospective studies do.
• Studies from North America are 3.8 times more likely to report negative results than studies from the rest of the world combined, p
|Total||210 studies||3,270 authors||186,848 patients|
|Positive effects||165 studies||2,565 authors||142,569 patients|
|Early treatment ||66% improvement ||RR 0.34 [0.27-0.44] |
|Late treatment ||25% improvement ||RR 0.75 [0.69-0.81] |
Covid Analysis et al., 2/25/2021, preprint, 1 author.