et al., J. Clin. Med.,
Retrospective 1,538 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing only HCQ associated with reduced mortality. Authors analyze mortality amongst those that were alive at day 7 to avoid survival time bias due to drug recording requiring a minimum of 5 days treatment.
De Rosa et al., 5/1/2021, retrospective, Italy, Europe, peer-reviewed, 20 authors.
risk of death, 35.0% lower, RR 0.65, p = 0.003, treatment 118 of 731 (16.1%), control 80 of 280 (28.6%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate logistic regression, patients alive at day 7.
risk of death, 36.0% lower, RR 0.64, treatment 207 of 1019 (20.3%), control 215 of 519 (41.4%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate logistic regression, all patients.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.