et al., J. Global Antimicrobial Resistance, doi:10.1016/j.jgar.2020.08.001 (Peer Reviewed)
Retrospective analysis of 36 hospitalized patients showing HCQ/AZ associated with lower ICU admission, p
=0.008. Median age 66, no mortality. Confounding by indication, however it was patients with hypoxemic pneumonia that were treated with HCQ/AZ, patients were not treated with HCQ/AZ if they didn't need oxygen therapy.
Dubernet et al., 8/20/2020, retrospective, France, Africa, peer-reviewed, median age 66.0, 20 authors.
risk of ICU admission, 87.6% lower, RR 0.12, p = 0.008, treatment 1 of 17 (5.9%), control 9 of 19 (47.4%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.