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HCQ study #191 of 258
11/19 Late treatment study
Falcone et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofaa563 (Peer Reviewed)
Role of low-molecular weight heparin in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia: a prospective observational study
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Prospective observational study of 315 hospitalized patients in Italy showing 65% lower mortality with HCQ. The median treatment delay was 6 days for survivors and 6.5 days for non-survivors. Mortality relative risk:
RR 0.35, p = 0.2, propensity score matched
RR 0.75, p = 0.36, multivariate Cox regression
RR 0.43, p < 0.001, univariate Cox regression

Falcone et al., 11/19/2020, prospective, Italy, Europe, peer-reviewed, 19 authors.
risk of death, 65.0% lower, RR 0.35, p = 0.20, treatment 40 of 238 (16.8%), control 30 of 77 (39.0%), adjusted per study, PSM.
risk of death, 25.0% lower, RR 0.75, p = 0.36, treatment 40 of 238 (16.8%), control 30 of 77 (39.0%), adjusted per study, multivariate Cox regression.
risk of death, 57.0% lower, RR 0.43, p < 0.001, treatment 40 of 238 (16.8%), control 30 of 77 (39.0%), adjusted per study, univariate Cox regression.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
Details of all 258 studies    Meta analysis
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