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0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Mortality -151% Improvement Relative Risk Death/intubation -46% Death/intubation/ICU -61% c19hcq.com/ferreira2h.html Favors HCQ Favors control
26 November 2021 - Late treatment study
Outcomes associated with Hydroxychloroquine and Ivermectin in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a single-center experience
Ferreira et al., Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, doi:10.1590/1806-9282.20210661 (Peer Reviewed)
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Retrospective 230 hospitalized patients in Brazil showing higher mortality with HCQ treatment. Authors note that the treatments were more likely to be offered to sicker patients. Authors indicate that they do not know when medication was started, which in some cases could have been after ICU admission or intubation. Dosage is unknown.
risk of death, 151.5% higher, RR 2.51, p = 0.03, treatment 17 of 111 (15.3%), control 11 of 81 (13.6%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariate.
risk of death/intubation, 45.9% higher, RR 1.46, p = 0.23, treatment 30 of 111 (27.0%), control 15 of 81 (18.5%).
risk of death/intubation/ICU, 61.3% higher, RR 1.61, p = 0.04, treatment 42 of 111 (37.8%), control 19 of 81 (23.5%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
Ferreira et al., 11/26/2021, retrospective, Brazil, South America, peer-reviewed, 5 authors, study period 12 March, 2020 - 8 July, 2020, average treatment delay 7.0 days, dosage not specified.
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