Retrospective 4666 people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions, showing HCQ adjusted risk of COVID-19 OR 0.91 [0.68-1.23]. Results are not adjusted for the significantly different risk of COVID-19 depending on the type and severity of autoimmune or inflammatory condition.
Fitzgerald et al., 2/5/2021, retrospective, USA, North America, preprint, 34 authors.
risk of COVID-19 case, 8.5% lower, RR 0.91, p = 0.52, treatment 65 of 1,072 (6.1%), control 200 of 3,594 (5.6%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: not fully adjusting for the baseline risk differences within systemic autoimmune patients.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.