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HCQ study #249 of 257
2/5 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis study (treated before exposed to the virus)
Fitzgerald et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.03.21251069 (Preprint)
Risk Factors for Infection and Health Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic in People with Autoimmune Diseases
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Retrospective 4666 people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions, showing HCQ adjusted risk of COVID-19 OR 0.91 [0.68-1.23]. Results are not adjusted for the significantly different risk of COVID-19 depending on the type and severity of autoimmune or inflammatory condition.

Fitzgerald et al., 2/5/2021, retrospective, USA, North America, preprint, 34 authors.
risk of COVID-19 case, 8.5% lower, RR 0.91, p = 0.52, treatment 65 of 1072 (6.1%), control 200 of 3594 (5.6%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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