Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D

Feedback Home
Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Hydroxychloroquine  COVID-19 treatment studies for HCQ  C19 studies: HCQ  HCQ   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
Aspirin Metformin
Bamlanivimab Molnupiravir
Bromhexine Nigella Sativa
Budesonide Nitazoxanide
Casirivimab/i.. Povidone-Iod..
Colchicine Probiotics
Conv. Plasma Proxalutamide
Curcumin Quercetin
Favipiravir Remdesivir
Fluvoxamine Sotrovimab
Hydroxychloro.. Vitamin A
Iota-carragee.. Vitamin C
Ivermectin Vitamin D
Melatonin Zinc

Other Adoption
HCQ study #359 of 360   Meta Analysis
10/1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis study (treated before exposed to the virus)
Fung et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.09.28.21264186 (Preprint)
Effect of common maintenance drugs on the risk and severity of COVID-19 in elderly patients
Source   PDF   Share   Tweet
Retrospective database analysis of 374,229 patients in the USA, showing no significant difference with HCQ use, however authors do not adjust for the very different baseline risk for systemic autoimmune disease patients. Other research shows that the risk of COVID-19 for systemic autoimmune disease patients is much higher overall, Ferri et al. show OR 4.42, p<0.001 [1].
Authors compare with patients that never used HCQ and with patients that previously used HCQ. The comparison with patients previously using HCQ is more relevant because the matching of patients with systemic autoimmune disease is likely to be better.
Fung et al., 10/1/2021, retrospective, population-based cohort, USA, North America, preprint, 6 authors.
risk of death, 15.0% lower, RR 0.85, p = 0.10, vs. past use (better match for systemic autoimmune diseases).
risk of hospitalization, 5.0% lower, RR 0.95, p = 0.41, vs. past use (better match for systemic autoimmune diseases).
risk of COVID-19 case, 10.0% lower, RR 0.90, p = 0.004, vs. past use (better match for systemic autoimmune diseases).
risk of death, 6.0% higher, RR 1.06, p = 0.39, vs. never used.
risk of hospitalization, 4.0% higher, RR 1.04, p = 0.32, vs. never used.
risk of COVID-19 case, 5.0% lower, RR 0.95, p = 0.06, vs. never used.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: not fully adjusting for the different baseline risk of systemic autoimmune patients.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
All 360 studies   Meta Analysis
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
  or use drag and drop