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HCQ study #25 of 320   Meta Analysis
5/4 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis study (treated before exposed to the virus)
Huh et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.04.20089904 (Preprint)
Association of previous medications with the risk of COVID-19: a nationwide claims-based study from South Korea
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Database analysis of many drugs and COVID-19 cases, with 23 cases taking HCQ, and 251 control patients not taking HCQ, showing OR 1.07, p=0.77, and in multivariable analysis OR 1.48, p=0.086.
Patients taking HCQ are most likely taking it for systemic autoimmune diseases where the risk of COVID-19 is much higher, for example OR 4.42, p<0.001 according to [1] (which includes factors such as systemic autoimmune disease patients potentially being more careful to avoid exposure). The result therefore suggests a substantial benefit for HCQ, as is also shown in Ferri et al. Adjusting for the difference in baseline risk of systemic autoimmune patients results in RR 0.24.
Details of the multivarible analysis in the paper are not provided for assessment, but the analysis may be significantly affected by overfitting and/or multicollinearity. We note that many results in this study differ significantly from other research, for example proton pump inhibitors show OR 0.62, p<0.001 whereas PPIs are classified as "no expected benefit" and other research suggests they increase risk.

Huh et al., 5/4/2020, retrospective, case control, database analysis, South Korea, Asia, preprint, 10 authors.
risk of COVID-19 case, 47.7% higher, RR 1.48, p = 0.09, odds ratio converted to relative risk.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
All 320 studies   Meta Analysis
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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