COVID-19 studies:  C19 studies: C19:  IvermectinIVM Vitamin DV.D HC QHC Q Vitamin CV.C ZincZn PXPX BHBH FPVFPV FLVFLV PVP-IPI CICI BLBL RDRD
  Meta AnalysisMeta
Database of all ivermectin COVID-19 studies. 86 studies, 46 peer reviewed, 50 with results comparing treatment and control groups. Submit updates/corrections below. FLCCC provides treatment recommendations.
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Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis v58 Ivermectin is effective for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 50 studies
• 98% of the 50 studies to date report positive effects (24 statistically significant in isolation). Random effects meta-analysis for early treatment and pooled effects shows an 81% reduction, RR 0.19 [0.09-0.38], and prophylactic use sho..
Review Turkia, M., Research Gate (Review) (Preprint) review A timeline of ivermectin-related events in the COVID-19 pandemic
An extensive timeline of ivermectin-related events from April 2020 to March 2021 including studies, news, health authority decisions, biased news coverage, and censorship. The author concludes that in a broader historical perspective, th..
Early Mourya et al., Int. J. Health and Clinical Research (Peer Reviewed) viral+, ↓89.4%, p<0.0001 Comparative Analytical Study of Two Different Drug Regimens in Treatment of Covid 19 Positive Patients in Index Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Indore, India
Retrospective 100 patients in India with 50 treated with ivermectin, and SOC for all patients including HCQ+AZ, showing much higher viral clearance with ivermectin. Baseline clinical status was worse in the control group. Time of testing ..
Early Chahla et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.29.21254554 (Preprint) no disch., ↓89.1%, p=0.005 Ivermectin reproposing for COVID-19 treatment outpatients in mild stage in primary health care centers
Cluster RCT outpatients in Argentina showing signficantly faster recovery with ivermectin. There were no deaths. Cluster RCT where outpatients in Tucumán were assigned to the ivermectin group and outpatients from San Miguel de Tucumán and..
Meta Kow et al., Pharmacological Reports, doi:10.1007/s43440-021-00245-z (Peer Reviewed) meta-analysis The association between the use of ivermectin and mortality in patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis
Small meta analysis of 6 RCTs showing mortality OR 0.21 [0.11-0.42]. Authors do not include two more recent RCTs with mortality results, 10 other studies with mortality results, and a total of 42 other studies including other outcomes. Au..
PrEPPEP Tanioka et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.26.21254377 (Preprint) death, ↓88.2%, p=0.002 Why COVID-19 is not so spread in Africa: How does Ivermectin affect it?
Retrospective study of the 31 onchocerciasis-endemic countries using the community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) and the 22 non-endemic countries in Africa, showing significantly lower mortality per capita in the countries us..
In Silico Udofia et al., Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, doi:10.1007/s13721-021-00299-2 (Peer Reviewed) In silico studies of selected multi-drug targeting against 3CLpro and nsp12 RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
In Silico analysis finding that ivermectin had the highest binding energy against the 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2 and RdRps of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
In Silico Choudhury et al., Future Medicine, doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0342 (Peer Reviewed) Exploring the binding efficacy of ivermectin against the key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis: an in silico approach
In Silico analysis finding that ivermectin has high binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein, main protease, replicase, and human TMPRSS2 receptors.
Late Huvemek Press Release (Preprint) no improv., ↓31.6%, p=0.28 Kovid-19 - Huvemek® Phase 2 clinical trial
Phase 2 results from a multicenter RCT of hospitalized patients in Bulgaria showing faster viral clearance, greater clinical improvement, and improved biomarkers with treatment. Ivermectin was taken on an empty stomach, potentially reduci..
Review Yagisawa et al., The Japanese Journal of Antibiotics, 74-1, Mar 2021 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Global trends in clinical studies of ivermectin in COVID-19
Review of ivermectin for COVID-19. Authors note that Kitasato University's project was expanded in response to the results of Caly et al. which had left questions regarding in vivo therapeutic levels, and the results of those studies were..
Early Emmerich et al., Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073371 (Peer Reviewed) Comparisons between the Neighboring States of Amazonas and Pará in Brazil in the Second Wave of COVID-19 Outbreak and a Possible Role of Early Ambulatory Treatment
Comparison between the two largest neighboring states in Brazil, Amazonas and Pará, showing more than 5 times lower mortality in Pará during the second wave when the Pará government supported early treatment and Amazonas did not, compared..
Late Del Franco et al., Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, doi:10.31546/2633-8653.1008 (Peer Reviewed) Ivermectin in Long-Covid Patients: A Retrospective Study
Retrospective 856 patients previously admitted to hospital for COVID-19 in Argentina, finding that ivermectin improved recovery from "long covid" symptoms.
Early Roy et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.21252883 (Preprint) recov. time, ↓5.6%, p=0.87 Outcome of Different Therapeutic Interventions in Mild COVID-19 Patients in a Single OPD Clinic of West Bengal: A Retrospective study
Retrospective database analysis of 56 mild COVID-19 patients, all treated with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc, comparing ivermectin + doxycycline (n=14), AZ (n=13), HCQ (n=14), and SOC (n=15), finding that all groups recover quickly, and ..
Meta Nardelli et al., Signa Vitae, doi:10.22514/sv.2021.043 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓79.5%, p<0.0001 Crying wolf in time of Corona: the strange case of ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine. Is the fear of failure withholding potential life-saving treatment from clinical use?
Meta analysis of RCT mortality results showing RR 0.19, p < 0.00001.
Meta Scheim et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) meta-analysis Ivermectin sales in Valle del Cauca, Colombia, patterns of AEs, and other background re López-Medina et al. 2021
Analysis of several issues with López-Medina et al. including the atypical adverse effects in the control arm and population use of ivermectin.
Meta Bryant et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (OSF preprints 3/11) (Preprint) death, ↓68.0%, p=0.006 Ivermectin for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta analysis of 21 RCTs finding mortality RR 0.32 [0.14-0.72], and prophylaxis case RR 0.14 [0.09-0.21].
Meta Scheim et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) meta-analysis Protocol violations in López-Medina et al.: 38 switched ivermectin (IVM) and placebo doses, failure of blinding, widespread IVM sales OTC in Cali, and nearly identical AEs for the IVM and control groups
Report on protocol violations in López-Medina et al.
In Vitro Yesilbag et al., Virus Research, doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198384 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Ivermectin also inhibits the replication of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BPIV-3, BoHV-1, BCoV and BVDV) in vitro
In Vitro study showing that ivermectin can inhibit infection of bovine respiratory disease viral agents BCoV, BPIV-3, BVDV, BRSV and BoHV-1 at the concentrations of 2.5 and 5 μM and in a dose-dependent manner.
Late Pott-Junior et al., Toxicology Reports, doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.003 (Peer Reviewed) ICU, ↓85.2%, p=0.25 Use of ivermectin in the treatment of Covid-19: a pilot trial
Small RCT with 4 control patients and 28 ivermectin patients split across 3 different dosage levels, showing lower (non-statistically significant) ICU admission with treatment. Authors suggest that ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2 is safe and re..
Early Chamie-Quintero et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) Ivermectin for COVID-19 in Peru: 14-fold reduction in nationwide excess deaths, p=.002 for effect by state, then 13-fold increase after ivermectin use restricted
Analysis of ivermectin use in Peru concluding that ivermectin most likely caused 14 times reductions in excess deaths in Peru, prior to 13 times increase after reversal of ivermectin use. Authors conclude that the results strongly suggest..
Late Guzman et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.04.21252084 (Preprint) Factors associated with increased mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients in a Mexican public hospital: the other faces of health system oversaturation
Retrospective 196 critically ill patients in Mexico. Patients overlap with the existing RCT by Beltran-Gonzalez (NCT04391127). This preprint shows a larger treated population and greater (non-statistically significant) improvement with iv..
Late Galan et al., Pathogens and Global Health, doi:10.1080/20477724.2021.1890887 (Peer Reviewed) Phase 2 randomized study on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized patients with severe manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection
RCT 168 very late stage severe condition hospitalized patients comparing CQ, HCQ, and ivermectin not showing significant differences. Authors were unable to add a control arm due to ethical issues. Authors claim that "the mortality ..
Safety Descotes, J., ImmunoSafe Consultance (Preprint) safety analysis Medical Safety of Ivermectin
Safety analysis of >350 articles showing that ivermectin has an excellent safety profile. The author notes that "no severe adverse event has been reported in dozens of completed or ongoing studies involving thousands of participants..
Early López-Medina et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2021.3071 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓66.8%, p=0.50 Effect of Ivermectin on Time to Resolution of Symptoms Among Adults With Mild COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Phone survey based RCT with low risk patients, 200 ivermectin and 198 control, showing lower mortality, lower disease progression, lower treatment escalation, and faster resolution of symptoms with treatment, without reaching statistical ..
In Silico Saha et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) The Binding mechanism of Ivermectin and levosalbutamol with spike protein of SARS-CoV-2
In SIlico analysis predicting that ivermectin has a large binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Three different computer modeling techniques show that ivermectin can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entrance via hACE2.
Late Beltran-Gonzalez et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.18.21252037 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓14.4%, p=1.00 Efficacy and safety of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine in patients with severe COVID-19. A randomized controlled trial
RCT late stage severe condition (93% SOFA ≥ 2, 96% APACHE ≥ 8) high comorbidity hospitalized patients in Mexico with 36 low dose ivermectin and 37 control patients not finding significant differences. NCT04391127
News BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021 (News) news BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021
The British Ivermectin Recommendation Development (BIRD) panel, with dozens of multi-national scientists & doctors, issued sweeping recommendations for the immediate global use of ivermectin.
Early Elalfy et al., J. Med. Virol., doi:10.1002/jmv.26880 (Peer Reviewed) viral+, ↓86.9%, p<0.0001 Effect of a combination of Nitazoxanide, Ribavirin and Ivermectin plus zinc supplement (MANS.NRIZ study) on the clearance of mild COVID-1
Non-randomized controlled trial with 62 mild and early moderate patients with home treatment with ivermectin + nitazoxanide + ribavirin + zinc, showing significantly faster viral clearance.
PrEPPEP Behera et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) cases, ↓83.0%, p<0.001 Prophylactic role of ivermectin in SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers
Prospective prophylaxis study with 3,532 healthcare workers, 2,199 receiving two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis, showing adjusted relative risk of confirmed COVID-19 with treatment 0.17 [0.12-0.23] p<0.001. 186 patients took only the first ..
Early Schwartz, E., Sheba Ivermectin Project (Preprint) hosp., ↓80.7%, p=0.23 Ivermectin vs. placebo treatment in non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 - A double blind, randomized controlled trial
Double blind RCT for mild-moderate COVID-19 outpatients in Israel showing significantly faster reduction in viral load with treatment, and zero hospitalizations with treatment compared with 2 for the control group. There were no safety i..
Late Lima-Morales (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓77.7%, p<0.001 Effectiveness of a multidrug therapy consisting of ivermectin, azithromycin, montelukast and acetylsalicylic acid to prevent hospitalization and death among ambulatory COVID-19 cases in Tlaxcala, Mexico
Prospective trial of 768 COVID-19 outpatients in Mexico, 481 treated with ivermectin, AZ, montelukast, and aspirin, and 287 control patients with various treatments, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization, and significa..
Early Mohan et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) no recov., ↓62.5%, p=0.27 Ivermectin in mild and moderate COVID-19 (RIVET-COV): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
RCT in India with low risk patients, comparing 24mg ivermectin, 12mg ivermectin, and placebo showing non-statistically significant improvements in recovery and PCR+ status (day 5 both arms, day 7 24mg only) with treatment, and showing gre..
Meta Castaneda-Sabogal et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.26.21250420 (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Outcomes of Ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Student-written meta analysis of a very small subset of studies exhibiting very high bias and significant flaws. Some of the problems: - As of the publication date, there are 35 studies, authors include only 4. (They list 5, but two are ..
In Silico Eweas et al., Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.592908 (Peer Reviewed) Molecular Docking Reveals Ivermectin and Remdesivir as Potential Repurposed Drugs Against SARS-CoV-2
Molecular docking analysis showing that ivermectin efficiently binds to the viral S protein as well as the human cell surface receptors ACE-2 and TMPRSS2; therefore, it might be involved in inhibiting the entry of the virus into the host ..
Animal Errecalde et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.xphs.2021.01.017 (Peer Reviewed) animal study Safety and Pharmacokinetic Assessments of a Novel Ivermectin Nasal Spray Formulation in a Pig Model
Animal study of a novel spray formulation of ivermectin, showing an advantage of the spray formulation in terms of fast attainment of high and persistent ivermectin concentrations in nasopharyngeal tissue.
Early Chamie-Quintero et al., Preprint, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3765018 (Preprint) Sharp Reductions in COVID-19 Case Fatalities and Excess Deaths in Peru in Close Time Conjunction, State-By-State, with Ivermectin Treatments
Analysis of ivermectin usage within states in Peru showing sharp reductions in COVID-19 deaths corresponding to the usage of ivermectin treatment.
In Vitro Mody et al., Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-020-01577-x (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro) in vitro Identification of 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLPro) inhibitors as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents
Computational molecular modeling screening and in vitro analysis for inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 specific 3CLpro enzyme, showing that ivermectin blocked more than 85% of 3CLpro activity of SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral activity of ivermectin..
Late Rezai et al., IRCT20111224008507N3 (Preprint) recov. time, ↓21.2%, p=0.02 Effectiveness of Ivermectin in the Treatment of Coronavirus Infection in Patients admitted to Educational Hospitals of Mazandaran in 2020
RCT in Iran showing shorter time to clinical recovery with Ivermectin. Results are from: [1] Trial details: [2] (double blind according to the trial registration)
Meta Hill et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) (meta analysis) death, ↓75.0%, p=0.0002 Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection
Meta analysis of 18 ivermectin RCTs with 2,282 patients showing faster viral clearance (dose and duration dependent), improved clinical recovery, and lower hospitalization and mortality. In six RCTs of moderate or severe infection, there ..
Early Raad et al., ChiCTR2000033627 (Preprint) hosp., ↓85.7%, p=0.24 In vivo use of ivermectin (IVR) for treatment for corona virus infected patients (COVID-19): a randomized controlled trial
RCT in Lebanon showing significantly lower viral load at day 3, and lower hospitalization. Results are from: [1]
Early Bukhari et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.02.21250840 (results 1/16) (Preprint) viral+, ↓82.4%, p<0.0001 Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19 Patients with Mild to Moderate Disease
RCT of relatively low risk hospitalized patients with 50 ivermectin and 50 control patients showing significantly faster viral clearance with treatment. 9 patients in the treatment arm were lost to followup compared with 5 in the control ..
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Kory et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.643369 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Meta analysis of ivermectin clinical studies and natural experiments where ivermectin has been widely used, showing efficacy of ivermectin in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. This paper was censored by the journal after acceptance [..
Late Okumuş et al., NCT04646109 (Preprint) death, ↓33.3%, p=0.55 Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Adding Ivermectin to Treatment in Severe COVID-19 Patients
Small RCT for severe COVID-19 comparing the addition of ivermectin to SOC (low dose HCQ+AZ+favipiravir), with 30 treatment and 30 control patients in Turkey, showing lower mortality and faster clinical recovery. Authors also investigate t..
PrEPPEP Chahla et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.26.21254398 (Preprint) cases, ↓95.2%, p=0.002 A randomized trial - intensive treatment based in ivermectin and iota-carrageenan as pre-exposure prophylaxis for COVID-19 in healthcare agents
Prophylaxis RCT for ivermectin and iota-carrageenan in Argentina, 117 healthcare workers treated with ivermectin and iota-carrageenan, and 117 controls, showing significantly lower cases with treatment. There were no moderate/severe cases..
N/A Bousquet-Melou et al., Preprint, doi:10.22541/au.161047848.80388481/v1 (Preprint) dosing study Large Impact of obesity on the disposition of ivermectin, moxidectin and eprinomectin in a canine model: relevance for COVID-19 patients
Animal dosing study with an obese dog model concluding that ivermectin maintenance doses should be based on lean body weight and not the total body weight in obese subjects, while the loading dose should be based on the total body weight.
Review Formiga et al., J. Control Release, doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.10.009 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Ivermectin: an award-winning drug with expected antiviral activity against COVID-19
Review hypothesizing that micro- and nanotechnology-based formulations of ivermectin for the pulmonary delivery of ivermectin may be beneficial for use with COVID-19.
Early Kirti et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.05.21249310 (Preprint) death, ↓88.7%, p=0.12 Ivermectin as a potential treatment for mild to moderate COVID-19: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial
RCT with 112 mild and moderate COVID-19 patients in India, showing lower mortality, ventilation, and ICU admission, although not statistically significant due to the small number of events. There was no mortality in the treatment arm (55 ..
Early Chamie, J. (News) news COVID-19 in Mexico
Comparison of COVID-19 death rates in Mexico showing that the only state using ivermectin has a dramatically lower rate.
Early Babalola et al., QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcab035 (preprint 1/6) (Peer Reviewed) viral+, ↓63.9%, p=0.11 Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate COVID19: A randomised controlled double-blind, dose-response study in Lagos
Small RCT comparing ivermectin 6mg & 12mg q84hr with lopinavir/ritonavir, showing a statistically significant and dose dependent effect of ivermectin on reducing the time to PCR-.
PrEPPEP Hirsch et al., Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (Peer Reviewed) Ivermectin as Prophylaxis Against COVID-19 Retrospective Cases Evaluation
Report on ivermectin prophylaxis for healthcare workers in a hospital in Argentina, showing 0 cases in the 162 participants. Dosage was 0.2mg/kg weekly for eight weeks, followed by 4 months rest.
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Lawrie et al., Preprint (Preprint) (meta analysis) death, ↓83.0%, p<0.0001 Ivermectin reduces the risk of death from COVID-19 – a rapid review and meta-analysis in support of the recommendation of the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance
Meta analysis confirming the effectiveness of ivermectin for COVID-19, showing ivermectin treatment mortality relative risk RR 0.17 [0.18-0.35] and prophylaxis cases RR 0.12 [0.08-0.18].
Late Wijaya et al., Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, 47:7 (Peer Reviewed) Ivermectin as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for COVID-19 – case studies
Case report on 3 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with significant clinical and radiological improvement after a single dose of ivermectin.
Animal Madrid et al., Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05820 (Peer Reviewed) animal study Safety of oral administration of high doses of ivermectin by means of biocompatible polyelectrolytes formulation
In vivo analysis of the safety of high dose ivermectin with a Corydoras fish animal model.
Review McCullough et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.264 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Multifaceted highly targeted sequential multidrug treatment of early ambulatory high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)
Review urging early treatment of COVID-19 with sequential multidrug treatment that has been shown to be safe and effective. Proposed treatment includes zinc, vitamin D & C, quercetin, and depending on age, comorbidities, and symptoms may ..
Early Procter et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.260 (Peer Reviewed) Clinical outcomes after early ambulatory multidrug therapy for high-risk SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection
Retrospective 922 outpatients, with 320 treated early due to age>50 or comorbidities, showing 2.2% hospitalization and 0.3% death, which authors note is considerably lower than reported in other studies in their region. At least two of z..
Meta Hill, A., Preprint (Preprint) (meta analysis) meta-analysis Meta-analysis of clinical trials of ivermectin to treat COVID-19 infection
WHO-funded meta analysis showing ivermectin treatment mortality relative risk RR 0.17 [0.08-0.35] for RCTs and RR 0.28 [0.13-0.62] for RCTs and observational studies, and confirming a dose-response effect.