Retrospective study of late stage use on 2,512 hospitalized patients showing no significant differences in associated mortality for patients receiving any HCQ during the hospitalization (HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.80-1.22]), HCQ alone (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.83-1.27]), or HCQ+AZ (HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.75-1.28]). Misclassification is possible due to manual abstraction of EHR data. They observed a change in the prescribing patterns of HCQ during the study timeframe. Confounding by indication.
Ip et al., 5/25/2020, retrospective, database analysis, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 32 authors.
risk of death, 1.0% lower, RR 0.99, p = 0.93, treatment 432 of 1914 (22.6%), control 115 of 598 (19.2%), adjusted per study.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.