et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.09.30.20204693 (Preprint) (meta analysis - not included in study count)
Meta analysis of prophylactic and early treatment RCTs, 24% reduction in cases, hospitalization or death with HCQ, RR 0.76, p
=0.025. No serious adverse cardiac events were reported. 5,577 patients.
The Boulware study provides a breakdown for treatment delay. For the case of < ~4 days (2 days enrollment, ~46 hours shipping), the result of the meta analysis becomes RR 0.68, p
The actual effect may be larger due to treatment delays, followup loss, protocol deviation, active placebos, no severity analysis for cases, and suboptimal regimens.
For the individual studies see [1, 2, 3, 4, 5].
Ladapo et al., 9/30/2020, preprint, 4 authors.
risk of combined cases/death/hospitalization, 24.0% lower, RR 0.76, p = 0.03.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.