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HCQ study #148 of 264
9/29 Late treatment study
Lammers et al., Int. J. Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.1460 (Peer Reviewed)
Early hydroxychloroquine but not chloroquine use reduces ICU admission in COVID-19 patients
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Observational study 1,064 hospitalized patients in the Netherlands, 53% reduced risk of transfer to the ICU for mechanical ventilation with HCQ treatment starting on the first day of admission.
Weighted propensity score adjusted hazard ratio for transfer to the ICU with HCQ treatment, HR = 0.47, p = 0.008. For CQ, HR = 0.8, p = 0.207. Mortality results in this study are only for mortality before transfer to the ICU. The combined ICU/death HR was 0.68, p = 0.024 for HCQ, and 0.85, p = 0.224 for CQ.
Observational, multicenter, cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. 189 HCQ patients, 377 CQ, 498 control.

Lammers et al., 9/29/2020, prospective, Netherlands, Europe, peer-reviewed, 18 authors.
risk of combined death/ICU, 32.0% lower, RR 0.68, p = 0.02, treatment 30 of 189 (15.9%), control 101 of 498 (20.3%), adjusted per study.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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