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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -25% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation -41% ICU admission -17% c19hcq.com Lotfy et al. HCQ for COVID-19 LATE TREATMENT Favors HCQ Favors control
Lotfy, 202 patient HCQ late treatment study: 25% higher mortality [p=0.76], 41% higher ventilation [p=0.34], and 17% higher ICU admission [p=0.53] https://c19p.org/lotfy
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Use of Hydroxychloroquine in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study
Lotfy et al., Turk. Thorac. J., doi:10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2021.20180
1 Jan 2021    Source   PDF   Share   Tweet
Retrospective 202 patients in Saudi Arabia not showing significant differences with treatment. No information is provided on how patients were selected for treatment, there may be significant confounding by indication. Time varying confounding is also likely as HCQ became controversial during the period studied, therefore HCQ use was likely more frequent toward the beginning of the period, a time when overall treatment protocols were significantly worse.
risk of death, 24.8% higher, RR 1.25, p = 0.76, treatment 6 of 99 (6.1%), control 5 of 103 (4.9%).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 41.2% higher, RR 1.41, p = 0.34, treatment 19 of 99 (19.2%), control 14 of 103 (13.6%).
risk of ICU admission, 16.5% higher, RR 1.17, p = 0.53, treatment 28 of 99 (28.3%), control 25 of 103 (24.3%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial confounding by time likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically, substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Lotfy et al., 1/1/2021, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, Middle East, peer-reviewed, mean age 55.0, 3 authors.
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