Retrospective 277 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing lower mortality with HCQ treatment, not reaching statistical significance, and subject to confounding by indication.
risk of death, 35.2% lower, RR 0.65, p = 0.12, treatment 32 of 200 (16.0%), control 19 of 77 (24.7%), NNT 12.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
excessive unadjusted differences between groups, substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Menardi et al., 9/30/2021, retrospective, Italy, Europe, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.