Retrospective 3,345 hospitalized patients in India, 11.5% treated with HCQ, showing unadjusted higher mortality with treatment. Confounding by indication and time based confounding (due to declining use over the period when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically) are likely.
risk of death, 81.0% higher, RR 1.81, p = 0.007, treatment 27 of 384 (7.0%), control 115 of 2,961 (3.9%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely, unadjusted results with no group details, substantial time varying confounding likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically.
Mohandas et al., 4/26/2021, retrospective, India, South Asia, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.