Retrospective 1210 hospitalized patients in Turkey focused on chronic kidney disease, haemodialysis and renal transplant patients, but also showing lower mortality with HCQ. Subject to confounding by indication.
Ozturk et al., 12/4/2020, retrospective, Turkey, Europe, peer-reviewed, 70 authors.
risk of death, 43.9% lower, RR 0.56, p = 0.14, treatment 165 of 1,127 (14.6%), control 6 of 23 (26.1%), CQ/HCQ.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.