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0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Mortality 67% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission -6% c19hcq.com/ramirezgarcia.html Favors HCQ Favors control
31 May 2021 - Late treatment study
Hydroxychloroquine and Tocilizumab in the Treatment of COVID-19: A Longitudinal Observational Study
Ramírez-García et al., Archivos de Medicina Universitaria (Peer Reviewed)
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Retrospective 403 hospitalized patients in Spain, showing lower mortality with treatment, however authors do not adjust for the differences between the groups. Confounding by indication is likely.
risk of death, 67.0% lower, RR 0.33, p < 0.001, treatment 48 of 350 (13.7%), control 22 of 53 (41.5%), NNT 3.6.
risk of ICU admission, 6.0% higher, RR 1.06, p = 1.00, treatment 35 of 350 (10.0%), control 5 of 53 (9.4%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: excessive unadjusted differences between groups, substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Ramírez-García et al., 5/31/2021, retrospective, Spain, Europe, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
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