French Multicentre Observational Study on SARS-CoV-2 infections Intensive care initial management: the FRENCH CORONA Study
et al., Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine,
Prospective study of 966 ICU patients in France, 289 treated with HCQ, showing no significant difference with treatment. Time based confounding is likely because HCQ became increasingly controversial and less used over the time covered, while overall treatment protocols during this period improved dramatically, i.e., more control patients likely come later in the period when treatment protocols were greatly improved.
risk of death, no change, RR 1.00, p = 0.94, treatment 53 of 289 (18.3%), control 120 of 677 (17.7%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
substantial confounding by time
likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically.
Roger et al., 7/10/2021, prospective, France, Europe, peer-reviewed, 34 authors, average treatment delay 8.0 days.