Prospective study of 966 ICU patients in France, 289 treated with HCQ, showing no significant difference with treatment. Time based confounding is likely because HCQ became increasingly controversial and less used over the time covered, while overall treatment protocols during this period improved dramatically, i.e., more control patients likely come later in the period when treatment protocols were greatly improved.
Roger et al., 7/10/2021, prospective, France, Europe, peer-reviewed, 34 authors.
risk of death, no change, RR 1.00, p = 0.94, treatment 53 of 289 (18.3%), control 120 of 677 (17.7%), odds ratio converted to relative risk.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial time varying confounding likely due to declining usage over the early period when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.