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HCQ study #219 of 260
12/16 Late treatment study
Signes-Costa et al., Archivos de Bronconeumología, doi:10.1016/j.arbres.2020.11.012 (Peer Reviewed)
Prevalence and 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and prior lung diseases
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47% lower mortality with HCQ/CQ. Retrospective 1,271 patients with lung disease in Canada, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Germany, Italy and Spain, 83% treated with HCQ/CQ.
Multivariable Cox regression HCQ/CQ mortality hazard ratio HR 0.53, p < 0.001.

Signes-Costa et al., 12/16/2020, retrospective, Spain, Canada, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Germany, Italy, Europe, Asia, Caribbean, North America, South America, peer-reviewed, 28 authors.
risk of death, 47.0% lower, RR 0.53, p < 0.001, treatment 4854, control 993, adjusted per study.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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