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HCQ study #110 of 257
8/5 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis study (treated before exposed to the virus)
Singer et al., Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218500 (Letter)
Hydroxychloroquine ineffective for COVID-19 prophylaxis in lupus and rheumatoid arthritis
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Comparison of the percentage of SLE/RA patients on immunosuppressants that were taking HCQ, for COVID-19 diagnosis versus other infections or outpatient visits, finding a similar percentage in each case.
No mortality of severity information is provided to determine if HCQ treated patients fared better. No adjustment for concomitant medications or severity.

Singer et al., 8/5/2020, retrospective, database analysis, USA, North America, preprint, 3 authors.
risk of COVID-19 case, 9.0% higher, RR 1.09, p = 0.62, treatment 55 of 10700 (0.5%), control 104 of 22058 (0.5%).

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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