Characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients admitted to a regional health system in the southeast
et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases,
Retrospective 161 hospitalized patients in the USA showing non-statistically significant unadjusted increased mortality with HCQ. Confounding by indication is likely.
Time varying confounding is likely. HCQ became controversial and was suspended towards the end of the period studied, therefore HCQ use was likely more frequent toward the beginning of the study period, a time when overall treatment protocols were significantly worse.
risk of death, 79.3% higher, RR 1.79, p = 0.10, treatment 17 of 65 (26.2%), control 14 of 96 (14.6%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
unadjusted results with no group details, no treatment details, substantial time varying confounding likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically, substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely.
Texeira et al., 12/31/2020, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.