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HCQ study #267 of 360   Meta Analysis
1/27 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis study (treated before exposed to the virus)
Trefond et al., Revue du Rhumatisme, doi:10.1016/j.rhum.2021.09.004 (preprint 1/27/2021) (Peer Reviewed)
Effet d’un traitement par hydroxychloroquine prescrit comme traitement de fond de rhumatismes inflammatoires chroniques ou maladies auto-immunes systémiques sur les tests diagnostiques et l’évolution de l’infection à SARS CoV-2: étude de 871 patients
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Retrospective 71 chronic HCQ patients compared with 191 matched controls, analyzing only those with a highly suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. No significant difference was found in outcomes, however matching failed with extreme confounding - 77.5% of HCQ patients with systemic autoimmune diseases vs. 21.5% of control patients.
Other research shows that the risk of COVID-19 for systemic autoimmune disease patients is much higher overall, Ferri et al. show OR 4.42, p<0.001 [1].
Trefond et al., 1/27/2021, retrospective, France, Europe, peer-reviewed, 21 authors.
risk of death, 16.6% higher, RR 1.17, p = 0.80, treatment 4 of 68 (5.9%), control 12 of 183 (6.6%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of combined death/ICU, 78.2% higher, RR 1.78, p = 0.21, treatment 8 of 71 (11.3%), control 18 of 191 (9.4%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of hospitalization, 44.9% higher, RR 1.45, p = 0.12, treatment 24 of 71 (33.8%), control 53 of 191 (27.7%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: not fully adjusting for the different baseline risk of systemic autoimmune patients, significant unadjusted confounding possible, excessive unadjusted differences between groups.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
All 360 studies   Meta Analysis
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