et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofaa446 (Peer Reviewed)
Small RCT on very late stage use of HCQ, with 48% on oxygen at baseline. 67 HCQ patients, 61 control.
Baseline states were not comparable - 82% more HCQ patients had the highest severity at baseline, there was 32% more male HCQ patients, and 44% more control patients used AZ. The HCQ group also had significantly more patients with cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease (non-hypertension), renal disease (non-dialysis), and a history of organ transplants.
30 day mortality RR 1.06, p
Ulrich et al., 9/23/2020, Randomized Controlled Trial, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, baseline oxygen requirements 63.3%, mean age 66.2, 18 authors.
risk of death, 6.0% higher, RR 1.06, p = 1.00, treatment 7 of 67 (10.4%), control 6 of 61 (9.8%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.