et al., South. Clin. Ist. Euras.,
Retrospective 147 ICU patients in Turkey, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on HCQ treatment before ICU admission. This is not very informative, for example we do not know if HCQ treated patients were much less likely to be admitted to the ICU.
Çiyiltepe et al., 4/30/2021, retrospective, Turkey, Europe, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
risk of death, 3.2% lower, RR 0.97, p = 0.85, treatment 69 of 95 (72.6%), control 39 of 52 (75.0%).
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: treatment group only includes patients where treatment failed resulting in ICU admission.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.