Retrospective 186 hospitalized patients in Pakistan showing unadjusted HCQ mortality RR 1.45, p
= 0.07. Confounding by indication is likely.
Sarfaraz et al., 1/2/2021, retrospective, Pakistan, South Asia, preprint, 7 authors.
risk of death, 45.0% higher, RR 1.45, p = 0.07, treatment 40 of 94 (42.6%), control 27 of 92 (29.3%).
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely, significant unadjusted confounding possible, unadjusted results with no group details.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.