Outcome and death risk of diabetes patients with Covid-19 receiving pre-hospital and in-hospital metformin therapies
et al., Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome,
Retrospective 188 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing higher risk of mortality with HCQ. Relatively few patients received HCQ. The results are likely subject to confounding by indication
with treatment more likely for severe cases, and severity was not used in adjustments. Confounding by time
is likely, with declining use of HCQ and improving SOC over the study period.
risk of death, 299.0% higher, OR 3.99, p = 0.04, treatment 25, control 163, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
substantial unadjusted confounding by indication
likely, substantial confounding by time
likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically.
Tamura et al., 7/13/2021, retrospective, Brazil, South America, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, study period 10 March, 2020 - 13 November, 2020.